Regarding gender differences, we found a higher NPI total score for males than for females, thus replicating other studies' findings Corry et al. However, we did not test metric gender invariance; results should therefore be interpreted with caution.
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Indeed, testing for gender invariance could ensure that the measure is not influenced by systematic response's bias linked to gender Meredith, Significant correlations we observed between the NPI's total score and social desirability in females but not in males might be another argument in favor of testing gender invariance in a future study. If this invariance condition was accepted, the difference on the NPI's total score we found between males and females could be interpreted in terms of stereotypes in gender roles. Considering the environmental aspects of this hypothesis education, culture … , it would be interesting to develop a version of the NPI specifically aimed at children and test a possible interaction between age and gender.
The lack of consensus in literature regarding the limits between normal and pathological narcissism renders its evaluation particularly complicated Pincus and Lukowitsky, and future studies are necessary. Notwithstanding, the general limitations of self-report scales, the use of the NPI and the interpretation of its total score may be useful for clinical purposes.
Our French adaptation showed good psychometrical properties, congruent with the literature data which allows us to consider it a satisfactory instrument to measure narcissism in its grandiosity dimension. For future studies, we suggest using a rating scale rather than the dichotomous format and to test the unidimensional hypothesis with CFA. A gender invariance measure should also be performed to confirm the stability of the scale across gender and to clarify the social desirability influence.
The study received the approval from the Ethical Committee of the Erasmus Hospital.
Notes et nouvelles
The study took place during a scheduled class time. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We want to acknowledge the helpful contribution to this work of N.
Clumeck, G. Davin, P. DeCocq, C. Delanaye, D. Detroux, D. Dieu, B. Jacques, F. Jurysta, O.
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Published online Dec Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Quantitative Psychology and Measurement, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Jul 4; Accepted Dec 5. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Abstract The Narcissistic Personality Inventory NPI is the most widely used self-report scale to assess the construct of narcissism, especially in its grandiosity expression. Keywords: narcissism, Narcissistic Personality Inventory, French validation, exploratory factor analysis, psychometry. Introduction The concept of narcissism originated from Greek mythology Hamilton, has always been of interest in psychology and psychiatry.
Materials and methods Participants Nine hundred and forty-two students males— Measure We used the item forced-choice dichotomous version of the scale Raskin and Hall, , Open in a separate window. Procedure The assessment was approximately 1 h long and took place during a scheduled class time. Analysis We conducted an exploratory principal component analysis PCA on the unrotated tetrachoric correlation matrix of the NPI 40 items.
Results Principal components analysis and reliability In agreement with the Kaiser criteria, the PCA results indicate an factor solution with an eigenvalue greater than 1, representing together Figure 1. Table 2 Unrotated tetrachoric correlation matrix of factor loadings.
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Criterion for significance is fixed to 0. Discussion In this study, we proposed a French adaptation of the NPI in a French-speaking Belgian subjects sample with the aim to explore its psychometrical aspects. Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Acknowledgments We want to acknowledge the helpful contribution to this work of N.
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Footnotes 1 Statsoft Inc. References Ackerman R. What does the narcissistic personality really measure? Assessment 18 , 67— Validation of two scales for narcissistic personality disorder. Narcissistic Personality Inventory: structure of the adapted Dutch version. The structure of the narcissistic personality inventory with binary and rating scale items. Cain N. Reliability and Validity Assessment. The nature of the data, or how to choose a correlation coefficient.
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Psychometrika 53 , — Initial construction and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory. Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder. A Narcissistic Personality Inventory. The Narcissistic Personality Inventory: alternate form reliability and further evidence of its construct validity.