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Women and the Family in Chinese History. London and New York: Routledge. Flower, John. French Cultural Studies 47— Harris, Mark. Hinton, William.

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Paris: M. Mann, Thomas. Buddenbrooks: The Decline of a Family. Translated by John E. New York: Vintage International. Mathy, Jean-Philippe. The French Review 62 3 : — Michalak, Laurence. Murphy, Julien. Raymond, Kim. Rosenlee, Li-Hsiang Lisa. Confucianism and Women: A Philosophical Interpretation.

Cile, Bolivia, Uruguay: atti della prima sessione del Tribunale Russell. Venezia: Marsilio. France-Observateur, December Shikibu, Murasaki. The Tale of Genji unabridged. Translated by Dennis Washburn. New York: W. Simons, Margaret A. Ward and Tommy L.

Lott, — Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Staude, Angela. Giorni cinesi.

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Milano: Longanesi. Surkis, Judith. Tanizaki, Junichiro. Translated by Gaston Renondeau. Terzani, Tiziano. New York: Henry Holt. New York: Anchor Books.

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Simone de Beauvoir a pour projet de visiter Tombouctou, mais la chaleur et le manque de transports font avorter ce voyage. Le fait de rencontrer des membres du R. Simone de Beauvoir. Paris : Gallimard Folio. Un amour transatlantique Paris : Gallimard N. Clarck-Taoua, Phyllis.

Leiris Michel. Paris : Gallimard Tel. Lessing, Doris. The Grass is Singing. Harmondsworth : Penguin. Marx, Karl. Castor de guerre. Paris : Presses universitaires de France. Rue Descartes 2 : The moment one chooses to be free one also chooses to be moral. Usually ethics is considered to be the choice made by the individual to be ethical, while morality is the whole of values and norms dominant in a given culture. I believe she ignores such a distinction because she makes a fundamental assumption: the individual conscience is what accounts for the birth of the subject, not the whole of social norms and values that society imposes upon the individual de Beauvoir, , 47— This assumption distinguishes between the person who claims to be moral because he follows the values and obeys the norms of the culture he is born into and the ethical person who, instead, is born the moment the will to be free is chosen.

The birth of the ethical person is the result of a process of transcendence, which she defines as a project de Beauvoir, op cit. At the origin of the formation of subjectivity, there is an act of will, which finds expression in the action of engaging oneself in the world in order to transform it and oneself. The formation of the subject depends on the will of the individual to live his freedom, seen by her as taking the engagement in the world seriously, from which his ends derive.

The individual ability to be free will make society more equalitarian. She speaks of the formation of the subject as a necessary condition for the making of democracy. The question that arises spontaneously at this point is: is freedom an ontological condition or is it social?

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In itself, freedom is an ontological quality, which, however, needs the world in order to become an existential and social experience. The subject, then, is that person who casts himself into the world as an act of freedom rather than finding himself in the world thinking he has no other choice but to accept what has been reserved for him by fate.

The act of freedom is an act of rebellion against facticity, that is, the social historical situation the individual is born into. However, the act of rebellion should not be seen as a negative act, as an act of destruction, but rather as a creative act necessary for the subject to be born. After Descartes how can we ignore the fact that subjectivity radically signifies separation?


And if it is admitted, at the cost of a contradiction, that the subject will be the men of the future reconciled, it must be clearly recognised that the men of today who turn out to have been the substance of the real, and not subjects, remain excluded forever from this reconciliation. To exist means to question and to answer The process of transcendence implies that at the core of subjectivity there is a movement toward the future because the act of negation creates an emptiness that makes the future a presence.

The reason for such a battle is the ambiguity of existence that forces the individual to choose between the right and the wrong that are not absolutes but depend on the situation the person is in. In this struggle, the person not only finds meaning but also ethics because the act of transcending originates in the antinomies of existence that provoke anxiety, which induces the individual to urgent interrogation. The meaning of life is given, it lies in life itself, while the meaning of existence must be discovered, conquered; it is the result of the existential struggle that sees man himself as an urgent interrogation.

And, as soon as he exists, he answers Going back to Kierkegaard, Simone de Beauvoir believes that ethics reside in the choice to be free and in the painfulness of an indefinite questioning, rather than in a set of norms and values collectively established Man is constantly faced by the possibility of not making the choice to be free because at his roots he is divided.

Therefore, he is constantly struggling with conflicting emotions that push him in two directions, either to transcend himself or to flee himself. There is within him a perpetual playing with the negative, and he thereby escapes himself, he escapes his freedom. Therefore, not only do we assert that the existentialist doctrine permits the elaboration of an ethics, but it even appears to us as the only philosophy in which an ethics has its place.

Joy is thus the main quality of freedom, and it does not come as a result of a frivolous and disengaged life but, on the contrary, of deep engagement. To will man free is to will there to be being, it is to will the disclosure of being in the joy of existence; in order for the idea of liberation to have a concrete meaning, the joy of existence must be asserted in each one, at every instant; the movement toward freedom assumes its real, flesh and blood figure in the world by thickening into pleasure, into happiness.

In addition, they constitute indivisible totalities whose ideas, moods, and acts are secondary, dependent structures and whose essential characteristic lies in being situated, and they differ from each other even as their situations differ in relation to each other. The unity of those signifying wholes is the meaning which they manifest. A man is the whole earth. Sartre , 1 Simone de Beauvoir shares the same synthetic anthropological view. She also believes that the individual is a whole in whom metaphysical and social conditions are strictly interrelated and the project of liberation implies a process of change that involves the individual and the society.

Even nature can be changed, but not the metaphysical conditions that are the limits the individual can never overcome without self destruction. To make himself other means, in fact, to transcend but also to accept the limits, and only then can man reach the profound meaning of existence and formulate the ends of his actions. Individual and universal experiences Simone de Beauvoir used literature to further explore her philosophical ideas.

This choice was justified by the fact that her philosophy had existence at its centre and literature was an indispensable tool for exploring the deep struggle of existence with the many possibilities it offers. With Sartre, she believed that the meaning of the world is revealed in language. Jean Paul Sartre, in the introduction to the first issue of Les Temps modernes, 1 October , spoke for the first time of a committed literature, making it clear that the act of writing is an act of disclosure whose final end is to change the social condition of man and the concept he has of himself.

It is a revolutionary act. The idea of committed literature, which de Beauvoir remained faithful to all her life, was already present in the books she wrote toward the end of WWII. In the two novels and her play, Simone de Beauvoir approaches the question of universal man, explaining that it is an abstraction since only the particular man exists. However, the will to be free and questioning puts the individual in contact with eternity, an experience that is possible only if he participates in the singularity of his era, in the singularity of his existence.

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The protagonist, Blomart, represents the free, and for this reason, ethical individual who lives committed to questioning everything and to finding new answers. The new woman is born because she chooses to transcend herself by sharing with her man the same project: the commitment to rebel against the oppression of the Nazis, which also means the will to be free. As the result of her process of transformation, a true relationship between the two is formed, not as a private affair but as the presence of two consciences that are in touch with eternity and the world at the same time.

In All Men Are Mortal, Simone de Beauvoir sets out the necessity to be mortal in order to live a full, passionate life.